Bev Thorpe January 20, 2006 RESOURCES ON GREEN CHEMISTRY By Bev Thorpe [This is a list of the best current resources on "green chemistry" -- the science that aims to make useful products with zero hazardous waste.--RPR editors] A. John Warner's Introduction to Green Chemistry -- a 45-minute on- line video. B. Green Chemistry and Consumer Network Check out this website for some excellent resources and newsletters on how Green Chemistry is being used in the manufacture of safer products. I recommend you download all five issues and read them to see how Green Chemistry can be applied to common household goods. Good reading! -- Bev Thorpe C. Terry Collins's institute at Carnegie Mellon University has interesting articles on Ethics as well as great information about his research. D. U.S. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge In the early 1990's, in response to the Clinton/Gore administration's reinventing government initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics coordinated the development of the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award Program. By combining elements of the EPA's design for the environment and the National Science Foundation's Technology of a sustainable environment, Green Chemistry as a philosophy was born. Green Chemistry places unique emphasis on practicing pollution prevention at the earliest stages of the design process. The Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award was established as an incentive to practice, promote and disseminate Green Chemistry in a non-regulatory fashion. E. Biobased polymers: The Nature Works website. Visit this site for answers to what PLA plastic is, how it is made, its benefits and other frequently asked questions. F. In 1998, the 12 principles of Green Chemistry were articulated in the book "Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice" by Paul T. Anastas (New York: Oxford University Press: 1998). These principles reflect ongoing activities by individuals in academia, industry and government to reduce or eliminate the use and/or generation of hazardous materials and chemical processes. Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry 1. Prevention -- It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created. 2. Atom Economy -- Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis -- Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. 4. Designing Safer Chemicals -- Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity. 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries -- The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used. 6.Design for Energy Efficiency -- Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. 7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks -- A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. 8. Reduce Derivatives -- Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 9. Catalysis -- Catalytic reagents(as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. 10. Design for Degradation -- Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. 11. Real-Time analysis for Pollution Prevention -- Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in- process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. 12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention -- Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires. Paul Anastas, is Director, Green Chemistry Institute Hosted under the American Chemical Society. Learn more about Green Chemistry and it's partner, Green Engineering, here. His 1998 book, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice "provides the first introductory treatment of the design, development, and evaluation processes central to Green Chemistry. A comprehensive textbook, it takes a broad view of the subject and integrates a wide variety of approaches. Topics include alternative feedstocks, environmentally benign syntheses, the design of safer chemical products, new reaction conditions, alternative solvents and catalyst development, and the use of biosynthesis and biomimetic principles. It introduces new evaluation processes that encompass the complete health and environmental impact of a synthesis, from the choice of starting materials to the final product. Throughout, the text provides specific examples which compare the new methods with classical ones."